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Friday, 14 November 2014

MUST KNOW!!!! Heart cancer as we never heard of it..




The Reason We Don’t Get Heart Cancer As you likely know, we receive half our genes from our mothers, half from our fathers. While it would seem our genetic fate is sealed, “nothing could be further from the truth,” said Gaynor, whose new book on the subject, The Gene Therapy Plan, will be available in 2015. “We understand now how gene expression can be modified throughout your life… and that can create cancer,” he said. In fact, our environment affects which genes become expressed (activated) as well as how frequently they become activated. And carcinogens coming from our food and environment are one of the many factors that influence which genes are activated or not. “A lot of toxins are found in breast tissue, because there are a lot of fat cells there,” Gaynor explained. “And toxins are found wherever there is the most fat.”


 While our bodies have some defenses against these contaminants, in the form of detoxifying enzymes, and while our bodies are supported by micronutrients which turn on tumor suppressor genes, dangerous toxins found in our fat tissue still modify our genes, which can result in cancers forming in the organs of our bodies, especially those containing fatty tissue. 

This, then, is why the heart is so exceptional: “There’s not a lot of fatty tissue [in the heart],” Gaynor said. Even more, “the heart’s enclosed in a membrane,” he explained. Known as the pericardium, this fluid-filled sac may itself become engulfed by cancer, with tumors metastasizing to the outside of it, but still it does its job of protecting our precious hearts. So, even though cancer can happen anywhere there are cells, your heart remains virtually immune due to its muscular nature and the assistance of the pericardium. Smart heart.



Read more at: http://forum.facmedicine.com/threads/why-do-we-never-hear-about-heart-cancer.19966/

Saturday, 1 November 2014

Vaccination.

video




Measles is one of the most contagious of the vaccine-preventable diseases, with reproduction rates (R 0) estimated at 12 to 18 — meaning that the average person with measles would be capable of infecting 12 to 18 other people if all his or her contacts were susceptible. The herd-immunity threshold (the population immunity level needed to interrupt transmission) is usually calculated as (R 0−1)÷R 0; for measles, this threshold is on the order of 92 to 94% to prevent sustained spread of the virus — higher than the thresholds for almost all other vaccine-preventable diseases.




From statistic of the measles prevalence in US, the resurgent of the case is somewhat closely related to the increasing number of parents in this country which are hesitant to have their children vaccinated, and such hesitancy has resulted in an accumulation of unvaccinated populations who can become infected and maintain transmission.

The licensure of the first live attenuated measles vaccine in 1963 offered the opportunity to prevent this health burden. Current vaccines are highly effective — about 94% for a single dose, if it's administered in the second year of life. With two doses administered on or after the first birthday and at least 1 month apart, almost all immunocompetent children are protected against measles for life. But vaccines don't save lives — vaccinations do. Vaccines that remain in the vial are completely ineffective.


To prevent measles from being reestablished as an endemic disease in the United States, we must first do better in vaccinating our at-risk population. That means ensuring that vaccine is accessible to all who need it — especially to people traveling outside the Western Hemisphere and those traveling to the United States from countries with circulating disease — and convincing hesitant families both that the vaccine is safe and effective and that measles is not trivial and can result in serious illness.



Taken from article entitles:

Mounting a Good Offense against Measles

Walter Orenstein, M.D., and Katherine Seib, M.S.P.H.
N Engl J Med 2014; 371:1661-1663October 30, 2014DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1408696

Monday, 20 October 2014

life support....!! how to do cpr...

If happen in front of you, someone just fall down unawake.. What will you do besides panicking??
at least you can make yourself usefull sometimes right...  so enjoy these videos...

adult cpr




cpr with 2 rescuers




with AED


MUST SEE!!! squatting is the best!!!



Seven Advantages of Squatting

  1. Makes elimination faster, easier and more complete. This helps prevent "fecal stagnation," a prime factor in colon cancerappendicitisand inflammatory bowel disease.
  2. Protects the nerves that control the prostatebladder and uterus from becoming stretched and damaged.
  3. Securely seals the ileocecal valve, between the colon and the small intestine. In the conventional sitting position, this valve is unsupported and often leaks during evacuation, contaminating the small intestine.
  4. Relaxes the puborectalis muscle which normally chokes the rectum in order to maintain continence.
  5. Uses the thighs to support the colon and prevent straining. Chronic straining on the toilet can cause hernias, diverticulosis, and pelvic organ prolapse.
  6. A highly effective, non-invasive treatment for hemorrhoids, as shown by published clinical research.
  7. For pregnant women, squatting avoids pressure on the uterus when using the toilet. Daily squatting helps prepare one for a more natural delivery.




DigitalMimbar (khalifahklothing)


Toilets from Ancient Times

Ancient Public Toilets
Pictures of ancient public toilets tend to confuse westerners, who assume that they were used in the sitting position. This impression is often reinforced by the pose of a comical tourist.
But, in reality, these are squattoilets.

Ancient Public Toilets

They are elevated, not for sitting, but because there is an open sewer underneath. The cutouts in the vertical wall allow people to clean themselves with water, which is done from the front when squatting.

The ancient Romans used the posture shown below on the left. (Togas were more convenient than trousers, and provided some degree of privacy.)
 
The tourists shown below might be surprised to learn that, except for royalty and the disabled, everyone used the squatting position until the second half of the 19th century.22




Note: The Sulabh International Museum of Toilets website claims that archeologists have found "sitting-type" toilets at ancient sites, thousands of years old. The author of the site, Dr. Bindeswar Pathak, was asked for his evidence that these toilets were used in the sitting position. He replied that he actually has no evidence, but was simply repeating the assumptions of western archeologists. 






A Clinical Study of Sitting versus Squatting

In April, 2002, an Iranian radiologist, Dr. Saeed Rad, published a study which compared the effectiveness of sitting versus squatting for evacuation.24    One of his conclusions relates to the cause of a type of hernia known as "rectocele," which is a bulge of the front wall of the rectum into the vagina.
Thirty subjects participated in the study – 21 male, 9 female – ranging in age from 11 to 75 years. Each patient received a barium enema so the internal mechanics of evacuation could be recorded on an X-Ray image. Each patient was studied in both the squatting and the sitting positions.
Using these images, Dr. Rad measured the angle where the end of the rectum joins the anal canal. At this junction point, the puborectalis muscle creates a kink to prevent incontinence. Dr. Rad found that when the subjects used sitting toilets the average angle of this bend was 92 degrees, forcing the subjects to strain. When they used squat toilets, the angle opened to an average of 132 degrees. At times it reached 180 degrees, making the pathway perfectly straight.
Using squat toilets, all the subjects reported "complete" evacuation. "Puborectalis relaxation occurred easily and straightening of the rectum and anal canal facilitated evacuation. The anal canal became wide open and no folding was noticed in the terminal rectum."
In the sitting position, "a remarkable folding was created in the terminal rectum predisposing it to rectocele formation, and puborectalis relaxation was incomplete." All the subjects reported that elimination felt "incomplete" in the sitting position.
Dr. Rad also measured the distance from the pelvic floor to the perineum. In the sitting position he found that the pelvic floor was pushed downwards to a significant degree. (A detailed discussion of the connection between sitting toilets and pelvic organ prolapse – including rectoceles – can be found in thegynecological disorders section.)
Dr. Rad concluded that the use of the squat toilet "is a more comfortable and efficient method of bowel evacuation" than the sitting toilet.


 
Different types of squat toilets





Conclusion

For 150 years, the people of the Western World have been the unwitting subjects of an experiment. By an accident of Fate, they were forced to adopt sitting toilets, while the other two-thirds of the world (the "control group") continued to use the natural squatting position.22




 

Photo courtesy of Lon&Queta at flickriver.com


The results of this experiment have been clear and unequivocal. The experimental group has suffered dramatically higher rates of intestinal and urological disorders. The following diseases are almost exclusively confined to the Western World: appendicitis, colon cancer, prostate disorders, diverticulosis, bladder incontinence, hemorrhoids, and inflammatory bowel disease.
But the results have been misinterpreted by researchers who were unaware that the experiment was even taking place. Western doctors have tried to blame these diseases on the "highly refined" western diet. Their attempts have consistently failed to show that diet is a significant factor. Conventional medical websites all tell the same story:
This is a disease of the Western World. We don't know what causes it, or why the developing world seems so strangely immune.
Medical researchers have been working diligently to solve these deadly mysteries, but they have made little progress. Due to their habit of studying diseases in isolation, they failed to notice a remarkable coincidence:   Many different bowel, bladder and pelvic diseases – previously rare or unknown – suddenly became commonplace in the last half of the 19th century.
This simple observation would have alerted them to the presence of a common underlying factor. It would have prompted the obvious question:  What suddenly changed in the daily habits of the population?
The obvious answer: They abandoned the squatting posture for bodily functions (including childbirth.) For each disease, the anatomical relevance of this change has been explained above. The relevance is confirmed by the absence of these disorders among squatting populations.

In conclusion, the porcelain throne has caused enormous amounts of needless suffering, and the annual waste of billions of dollars in health-care costs. Clearly, the time has come to reacquaint Western Man with his natural habits – and put this unfortunate experiment to an end. 






REFERENCES

  1. Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis of Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/diverticulosis/
  2. Welles, William, "The Importance of Squatting" chapter in Tissue Cleansing Through Bowel Management, Bernard Jensen Publisher; 10th edition (June 1981).
  3. Jacobs E J, White E., Constipation, laxative use, and colon cancer among middle-aged adults. Epidemiology, 1998 Jul, 9 (4): 385-91.
  4. Tagart REB. The Anal Canal and Rectum: Their Varying Relationship and Its Effect on Anal Continence, Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 1966: 9, 449-452.
  5. Hornibrook, F.A., The Culture of the Abdomen, (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1933), pp. 75-78
  6. Aaron, H., Our Common Ailment, (New York: Dodge Publishing Co., 1938), p. 39.
  7. Sikirov BA. Management of Hemorrhoids: A New Approach, Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 1987: 23, 284-286.
  8. Dimmer, Christine; Martin, Brian; et al. "Squatting for the Prevention of Hemorrhoids? ", Department of Science and Technology Studies, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia, published in the Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients, Issue No. 159, October 1996, pp. 66-70 (available online at http://www.uow.edu.au/~bmartin/pubs/96tldp.html)
  9. Sikirov BA, Etiology and pathogenesis of diverticulosis coli: a new approach, Medical Hypotheses, 1988 May;26(1):17-20.
  10. Sikirov BA, Cardio-vascular events at defecation: are they unavoidable?, Medical Hypotheses, 1990 Jul;32(3):231-3.
  11. Bockus, H.L., Gastro-Enterology, (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1944), Vol. 2, p. 469
  12. Kira A. The Bathroom. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976, revised edition, pp.115,116.
  13. Tobin, Andrew.. Prostate Disorder – Causes and Cure, National Direct Publishing, Bowden, Australia, 1996, (Chapter 12, by Wallace Bowles, entitled "Refining an Everyday Activity"),p.132
  14. Ibid., p. 138.
  15. Cleary, Margaret, "My Child, My Teacher", New Vegetarian and Natural Health, Australian Vegetarian Society, Spring Edition, 1998.
  16. Henry, Dr. M.M. and Swash, Dr.M., Coloproctology and the Pelvic Floor, Butterworths London, 1985, p. 145,147,301.
  17. Bowles, Wallace, The Importance of Squatting for Defecation, unpublished article, January, 1992.
  18. The role of Reginald Heber Fitz in explaining appendicitis: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2601730/
  19. Walker AR, Segal I., Epidemiology of noninfective intestinal diseases in various ethnic groups in South Africa. Israel Journal of Medical Science, 1979 Apr;15(4):309-13. (online atPubMed.)
  20. Appendicitis and King Edward VII: www.users.bigpond.com/billmastermind/moments53.htm
  21. Montgomery Scott M , Pounder Roy E , Wakefield Andrew J, Infant mortality and the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease,The Lancet Volume 349, Number 9050 DATUM: 1997-02-15.
  22. A History of Technology, Vol.IV: The Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850. (C. Singer, E Holmyard, A Hall, T. Williams eds) Oxford Clarendon Press, pps. 507-508, 1958
  23. King, John E.(Editor in Chief), Mayo Clinic on Digestive Health, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2000, p.128
  24. Rad, Saeed, "Impact of Ethnic Habits on Defecographic Measurements", Archives of Iranian Medicine, Vol 5, No. 2, April 2002, p.115-117.
  25. Russell JGB. Moulding of the pelvic outlet. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 1969;76:817-20 (cited at http://home1.gte.net/gastaldo/part2ftc.html)
  26. Information on cost of hysterectomies at the Hudson's FTM Resource Guide website
  27. Historical Perspectives in Surgery, Medscape Surgery 4(1), 2002, "Famous Patients, Famous Operations, 2002 - Part 2: The Case of a Royal Pain in the Abdomen"
  28. Kirsner, Joseph B., Historical origins of current IBD concepts,World J Gastroenterol,2001; April 7(2):175-184. The relevant excerpt, regarding Inflammatory Bowel Disease: "Appearing initially as isolated cases in Great Britain and northern Europe during the 19th and early 20th centuries, they have steadily increased numerically and geographically and today are recognized worldwide."
  29. Roberts RO, Lieber MM, Bostwick DG, Jacobsen SJ: A review of clinical and pathological prostatitis syndromes. Urology 49: 809-821, 1997
  30. Latest trends in dealing with appendicitis: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/175_01_020701/hugh/hugh.html
  31. Burkitt DP. Appendicitis. London: Norgine Ltd, 1980.
  32. History of Hysterectomies: http://www.qis.net/~pvietz/history.htm
  33. Prostate cancer timeline: http://www.psa-rising.com/timeline/
  34. Primary Surgery, Volume One: Non-trauma, Prolapse of the Uterus (online at http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/dtc/primsurg/docbook/html/x6935.html)
  35. Schulz, J.A. (2001). Assessing and treating pelvic organ prolapse. Ostomy Wound Management, 4 (5), 54-56, 58-60.
  36. McIntosh, Louise. The Role of the Nurse in the Use of Vaginal Pessaries to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse and/or Urinary Incontinence: A Literature Review, Urologic Nursing, 2005; 25 (1): 41-48.
    (online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/499503_3)
  37. Information on C-Sections at International Cesarean Awareness Network.
  38. Transcript of Mrs. Kotarinos' talk at Interstitial Cystitis Network.
  39. Department of Urology | Addenbrooke's Hospital, History of Urology: http://www.camurology.org.uk/about/history_of_urology.php
  40. Temple NJ, Burkitt, DP, The war on cancer--failure of therapy and research: discussion paper., J R Soc Med. 1991 February; 84(2): 95–98.
  41. Burkitt, DP, Hiatus hernia: is it preventable?, Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, Mar 1981; 34: 428 - 431.
  42. Sontag, SJ, Defining GERD, Yale J Biol Med. 1999 Mar-Jun; 72(2-3): 69-80. 

Friday, 3 October 2014

Sweet Myth : do we really only utilise 10% ???






Modern technology allows us to see what is happening in the brain as it functions. the equipment scans the brain and shows different parts firing at different time. When there is a firing, it means that part is being used. as a result, all parts of brain gets fired up even that was not at the very same time as we imagine.

It is because, different part of the brain takes control of different function. for example, for cognitive function, we are using our frontal part of brain, so if we were to scan, the front part of our brain will get fire up when we are thinking or solving problems.

for a clearer explanation, lets take a look at the video below.

Sunday, 14 September 2014

Breast Cancer: how to recognize.

Cancer is increasing in incidence and today, it would seem that each of us knows at least a friend or a family member that has been affected by cancer. Based on the latest Health Facts 2013 released by Ministry of Health (MoH) Malaysia, cancer is one of the top ten causes of hospitalisation and one of the top five causes of death in both MoH and private hospitals. . The salient truth is that cancer has overtaken hearth disease as the number one killer this year (2014).

Chart below generated from the National Cancer Registry (NCR) report in 2007 shows the top five leading cancers among the general population in Malaysia were breast (18.1%), head and neck* (13.2%), colorectal (12.3%), trachea, bronchus and lung (10.2%) as well as cervix (4.6%).

Although the USA death toll from cancer has declined for 2 decades, cancer deaths continue to rise globally according to the annual cancer statistics report from the American Cancer Society – largely due to effective treatment and with an increasing population ceasing smoking in stark contrast to the rest of the world.
In Malaysia, the incidence of cancer increased from 32,000 new cases in 2008 to about 37,000 in 2012. Mortality due to cancer stood at 20,100 deaths in 2008 and has increased to 21,700 deaths in 2012, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Globocan of the World Health Organisation (WHO). More than 50% of Malaysian Malay men smoke, more than 30% Malaysians are obese, yet we still do not take screening and prevention seriously.


This video can show you how to recognize breast cancer.

video


Here are some facts about breast cancer. (US data)
  • About 1 in 8 U.S. women (just over 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
  • In 2013, an estimated 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S., along with 64,640 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.
  • About 2,240 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in men in 2013. A man’s lifetime risk of breast cancer is about 1 in 1,000.
  • Breast cancer incidence rates in the U.S. began decreasing in the year 2000, after increasing for the previous two decades. They dropped by 7% from 2002 to 2003 alone. One theory is that this decrease was partially due to the reduced use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women after the results of a large study called the Women’s Health Initiative were published in 2002. These results suggested a connection between HRT and increased breast cancer risk.
  • About 39,620 women in the U.S. were expected to die in 2013 from breast cancer, though death rates have been decreasing since 1989 — with larger decreases in women under 50. These decreases are thought to be the result of treatment advances, earlier detection through screening, and increased awareness.
  • For women in the U.S., breast cancer death rates are higher than those for any other cancer, besides lung cancer.
  • Besides skin cancer, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women. Just under 30% of cancers in women are breast cancers.
  • White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. However, in women under 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women than white women. Overall, African-American women are more likely to die of breast cancer. Asian, Hispanic, and Native-American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.
  • In 2013, there were more than 2.8 million women with a history of breast cancer in the U.S. This includes women currently being treated and women who have finished treatment.
  • A woman’s risk of breast cancer approximately doubles if she has a first-degree relative (mother, sister, daughter) who has been diagnosed with breast cancer. About 15% of women who get breast cancer have a family member diagnosed with it.
  • About 5-10% of breast cancers can be linked to gene mutations (abnormal changes) inherited from one’s mother or father. Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most common. Women with a BRCA1 mutation have a 55-65% risk of developing breast cancer before age 70, and often at a younger age that it typically develops. For women with a BRCA2 mutation, this risk is 45%. An increased ovarian cancer risk is also associated with these genetic mutations. In men, BRCA2 mutations are associated with a lifetime breast cancer risk of about 6%; BRCA1 mutations are a less frequent cause of breast cancer in men.
  • About 85% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These occur due to genetic mutations that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutations.
  • The most significant risk factors for breast cancer are gender (being a woman) and age (growing older).






acknowledgements: CARIF,US breast cancer statistic

Wednesday, 6 August 2014

Ebola - Key points


Ebola is not airborne or spread by droplets. Ebola are not infectious until symptoms have developed. Direct contact with infected secretions, such as saliva, is essential to transmitting the Ebola virus.
You cannot acquire Ebola virus if another person coughs or sneezes close to you, and it is not spread by casual contact. Rather, it is acquired by direct contact with infected secretions such as vomit, diarrhea, and blood primarily. It may also be spread by direct contact with saliva, sweat, and tears. Other means of transmission include contact of secretions with a skin opening or healing wound, or if a person contacts secretions and touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth.
It is important to remember that “only patients who are symptomatic are contagious” and can then transmit the virus to others through their secretions.
Those who have contracted the disease are primarily healthcare workers caring for patients, as well as family members who have had close contact with infected patients. Another method of infection has involved family members who handle corpses at the time of burial, along with those who eat fruit bats, antelope, or other animals potentially infected with the virus.

credits to Hu Mung Chee

Friday, 1 August 2014

Friday, 30 May 2014

Asthma : know your triggers...


Asma adalah  penyakit paru-paru kronik (jangka panjang) yang menyempitkan saluran pernafasan melalui proses inflamasi. Asma menyebabkansimptom seperti wheezing (bunyi bersiul apabila anda bernafas), kesesakan dada, sesak nafas, dan batuk. Batuk yang sering berlaku pada waktu malam atau awal pagi adalah ciri2 yg sering berlaku.

Asma memberi kesan kepada semua peringkat umur, tetapi yang paling sering bermula pada zaman kanak-kanak. Di Amerika Syarikat, lebih daripada 25 juta orang diketahui mempunyai asma. Kira-kira 7 juta orang-orang ini adalah kanak-kanak.


Menurut data WHO yang diterbitkan pada April 2011 Kematian Asma di Malaysia mencapai 988 atau 0.97% daripada jumlah kematian. Kadar Kematian umur diselaraskan adalah 5.32 bagi setiap 100,000 penduduk Malaysia berada di kedudukan #79 di dunia.






Faktor risiko:


Kanak-kanak yang sering wheezing dan mengalami jangkitan pernafasan merupakan faktor-risiko yang secara langsung paling tinggi menyebabkan asma  selepas umur 6 tahun. Faktor-faktor risiko yang lain termasuk mempunyai alahan, ekzema (satu keadaan kulit alergi), atau ibu bapa yang mempunyai asma. 


Kanak-kanak lelaki lebih berisiko menghidapi asma daripada perempuan. Tetapi di kalangan orang dewasa, penyakit ini memberi kesan kepada lelaki dan wanita secara sama rata. Ia tidak jelas sama ada atau bagaimana jantina dan seks hormon memainkan peranan dalam menyebabkan asma. 


Kebanyakannya,  penghidap asma mempunyai alahan, ia termasuk kepada mkanan, atau alahan jenis cotact (sentuhan). 


Sesetengah orang yg lain mengalami asma kerana terkena iritasi kimia tertentu atau debu industri di tempat kerja. Jenis ini dipanggil asma asma pekerjaan (occupational-induced asthma).


Rawatan:


Mencegah lebih baik dari menyembuh. Jadi anda harus mengenalpasti triggers yg spesifik untuk asma anda sendiri. Seterusnya ialah menjauhi trigger tersebut. Seseorang tidak semesti nya mempunyai 1 trigger, ia boleh jadi 2, atau banyak lagi. Semuanya bergantung kepada tubuh badan dan tahap imune individu itu sendiri


antara trigger yg biasa termasuklah: 

- cuaca sejuk
-makan, minuman sejuk
-habuk, debunga
-exercise, aktiviti fizikal
-jangkitan paru2, demam selesema
-alahan makanan/ ubat




Selepas mengenal trigger anda barulah ubatan akan berfungsi dengan optimum dan memberi kesan yg positif kpd hidup anda.

Inhaler. Ini merupakan salah satu rawatan yg penting, secara umum ia mempunyai 'preventer' dan 'reliever' ..

Ini bergantung kepada nasihat doktor anda, namun apa yg paling penting ialang teknik mengguna yg betul. ini kerana banyak yg menggunakan secara salah dan menyebabkan keberkesanannya kurang.


video

Wednesday, 28 May 2014

skizofrenia


Skizofrenia adalah sindrom di mana minda kita memainkan sesuatu yg tidak nyata dan tidak wujud.
penghidap skizofrenia seringkali menyatakan mereka nampak, rasa atau mendengar sesuatu. namun ianya hanya mainan fikiran semata-mata. Ini terbukti pabila orang lain tidak dapat melihat atau mendengarnya.

Mungkin sukar untuk dibezakan dengan gangguan makhluk2 halus kan. ya, memang sukar. namun penyakit ini boleh dikenal pasti dengan beberapa simptom dan pattern yg berkenaan.

Secara ringkas pengidap akan mengalami 'positive symptoms' ataupun 'negative symptoms' pada masa2 tertentu. positif termasuklah; halusinasi, delusi. manakala negatif antaranya; mula mengasingkan diri, tidak berminat lagi dengan hobi, mimik muka yg terhad.

Gejala positif adalah simptom yang individu normal tidak mengalami tetapi hadir pada penghidap skizofrenia. Biasanya simptom ini dianggap sebagai manifestasi psikosis. Positive symptoms umumnya mempunyai respon yang baik kepada ubat.

Gejala negatif adalah suatu defisit tindak balas emosi atau proses pemikiran lain, dan ini kurang memberi respons kepada ubat. Gejala negatif menyumbang kepada rendahnya kualiti hidup, keupayaan berfungsi, dan beban kepada orang lain berbanding dengan manifestasi gejala yang positif. Orang dengan gejala negatif yang sangat teruk sering mempunyai sejarah poor adjustment sebelum bermulanya penyakit. Tindak balas kepada ubat sering terhad

Di sini adalah maksud istilah2 yg berkaitan;

halusinasi: persepsi deria yg wujud tanpa kehadiran stimulus/objek sebenar. boleh hadir dalam bentuk deria lihat, dengar dan rasa.

delusi: kepercayaan pemikiran yg sangat kuat berkenaan sesuatu yakni jauh dari amalan agama atau adat seseorang. boleh hadir dalam pelbagai bentuk, contoh yg sering berlaku ialah delusi jenis 'persecutary': seseorang yg percaya bahawa ada orang/sesuatu ingin mencederakan atau berbuat kejahatan terhadapnya dimana jika ditanya kn mengapa, alasan nya tidak logik dan tidak kena mengena langsung dengan agama dan adat individu tersebut.

psikosis: ialah simptom yg bermaksud seseorang itu tidak dapat membezakan mana yg reality dan mana yg tidak. ini termasklah kedua2 halusinasi dan delusi. psikosis adalah manifestasi simptom, dan ia bukan lah suatu tarif diagnosis (penyakit) .


Disini ada satu petikan dari pengidap skizofrenia yg telah pulih..

""Saya dibesarkan di sebuah keluarga yang normal, dan saya adalah seorang anak cerdas dengan IQ- 140, seorang mahasiswa yang selalu dapat nilai A. Tapi ketika masih kuliah, konsentrasi saya mulai menghilang.Saya mulai mendengar suara-suara yang mengatakan bahwa saya bukan siapa-siapa, bahwa saya  tidak akan pernah berhasil dalam hidup. Nilai saya turun dari A ke C.
Pada tahun 1977, saya dirawat di rumah sakit karena skizofrenia. Saya diberi terapi electroconvulsive (ECT), sejumlah besar obat. Suara-suara itu berhenti sementara, tetapi mereka tidak pergi untuk selamanya. Setelah dirawat di rumah sakit, saya mencoba untuk mencari pekerjaan dan bekerja mandiri. Tapi saya tidak bisa melakukannya. Suara-suara tersebut  menakutkan dan sangat mengganggu. Akhirnya saya pindah dan hidup dengan ibu saya, dan segera setelah itu, dikirim ke rumah sakit lain di Jacksonville, Florida, Amerika Serikat.
Saya keluar masuk rumah sakit dan mendapat pengobatan rawat jalan untuk sementara waktu, karena suara-suara tersebut datang dan pergi. Kadang-kadang saya merasa kondisi begitu baik sehingga saya menyangkal kalau saya punya penyakit sampai gejala tersebut kembali kambuh. Saya merasa sangat lelah dan bosan dengan pengobatan pada saat itu, saya merasa ada stigma terhadap saya dari ibu saya sendiri dan bahkan psikiater saya. Ibu saya bilang kalau saya akan disingkirkan atau dibuang selama sisa hidup saya, dan dia percaya bahwa tidak seorangpun dengan penyakit mental seperti skizofrenia bisa sembuh.
Saya tidak tahan dengan cap (stigma) seperti itu , jadi aku pindah. Rencana saya adalah untuk mencari pekerjaan, tapi akhirnya saya jadi tunawisma di jalanan di Florida. Saya tidak punya makanan, obat-obatan, dan pekerjaan yang bisa membuat saya hidup mandiri. Untuk sementara, saya tinggal di garasi seseorang, dan sebagai imbalannya , saya harus melakukan segala macam pekerjaan. Ketika gejala penyakit saya menjadi lebih parah, saya dibawa ke unit gawat darurat.
Di sinilah cerita saya mulai berbalik. Untuk pertama kalinya dalam hidup saya, saya terhubung dengan seorang pekerja sosial yang membantu saya mendapatkan perawatan, Jaminan Sosial, pakaian, makanan, dan tempat tinggal. Ketidak pastian dan kekhawatiran saya tentang hidup sendiri mulai pergi, dan saya merasa termotivasi. Ini adalah awal dari pemulihan saya.
Saya mendapat obat-obatan yang lebih baru dan lebih efektif, dan obat yang disebut Respidol akhirnya membuat suara-suara menghilang untuk selamanya. Saya bisa hidup sendiri di sebuah apartemen biasa untuk pertama kalinya. Saya belajar keterampilan dasar mengatasi masalah (halusinasi, dll) dari petugas kesehatan (manajer kasus)  dan teman-teman serta dari kelompok pendukung yang memiliki pengalaman dalam sistem kesehatan mental. Mereka mengajari saya bagaimana untuk melakukan advokasi untuk diri saya sendiri. Bantuan mereka sangat penting dalam proses pemulihan saya, itu membuat saya ingin memberi sesuatu kepada orang lain yang membutuhkan. Saya mulai menceritakan kisah saya sendiri kepada konsumen (penderita gangguan jiwa lain). Hebatnya, saya menemukan bahwa melakukan hal ini tidak hanya membuat orang lain terinspirasi tetapi membantu pemulihan saya sendiri. Perlahan lahan saya semakin kuat dan pulih kembali. 
Setelah 20 tahun, akhirnya saya kembali ke perguruan tinggi. Ada petugas kesehatan (manajer kasus) yang meragukan saya, yang mengatakan saya tidak boleh mengajukan pinjaman (hutang) untuk mahasiswa karena saya tidak mungkin bisa mendapatkan nilai yang diperlukan. Tapi di tahun 1990-an, saya mendapat gelar sarjana saya dan selanjutnya master dalam pekerjaan sosial dan konsisten mendapat nilai A. Pada titik ini saya benar-benar independen. Saya melepaskan  Jaminan Sosial, Medicare dan Medicaid , serta melepaskan perumahan bersubsidi. Saya sekarang memiliki sebuah kondominium melalui program sewa-untuk-saya sendiri, dan di sanalah saya tinggal-dengan istri saya. Saya lupa menyebutkan saya menikah?
Sekarang, saya koordinator Kantor Urusan Konsumen di Florida, kantor didanai oleh Departemen Anak dan Keluarga. Menurut saya hal yang paling penting untuk pemulihan adalah adanya harapan, kekuatan dan kemampuan dari diri saya sendiri yang bisa membuat pemulihan menjadi suatu kenyataan.  Bukan hanya obat-obatan, tidak hanya terapi, bukan hanya stabilitas keuangan, dll . Semua hal tersebut penting dalam proses pemulihan. Namun pemulihan itu hal yang pribadi sifatnya, berbeda antara satu dengan lainnya. Tidak ada yang dapat memberitahu Anda bagaimana untuk melakukan pemulihan tersebut. Hal yang penting untuk diketahui adalah bahwa Anda bisa pulih.  Anda memiliki kekuatan dan kemampuan untuk membuat pemulihan menjadi suatu kenyataan. ""



Thursday, 8 May 2014

CHD coronary heart disease... Pembunuhan yg dirancang...

CHD umumnya memberi kesan kepada lebih ramai lelaki daripada wanita, tetapi dari umur 50 peluang membangunkan CHD adalah sama bagi lelaki dan wanita. 
Serta angina (sakit dada), gejala utama CHD adalah serangan jantung dan kegagalan jantung. Walau bagaimanapun, tidak semua orang mempunyai simptom yang sama dan sesetengah orang mungkin tidak mempunyai apa-apa sebelum CHD didiagnosis. CHD kadang-kadang dipanggil penyakit jantung iskemia.

Jantung



Jantung adalah otot sebesar penumbuk anda. Ia mengepam darah ke seluruh tubuh anda dan berdegup kira-kira 70 kali seminit. Selepas darah meninggalkan sebelah kanan jantung, ia pergi ke paru-paru anda, di mana ia menyerap oksigen. 
Darah yang kaya dengan oksigen kembali ke jantung anda dan kemudiannya dipam ke organ-organ badan anda melalui rangkaian arteri. Darah kembali ke jantung melalui urat anda sebelum dipam semula ke paru-paru anda lagi. Proses ini dipanggil edaran. 
Jantung mendapat bekalan sendiri darah dari rangkaian saluran darah di permukaan jantung anda, yang dipanggil arteri koronari.

               
       




Mengapa penyakit jantung koronari berlaku? 

Penyakit jantung koronari adalah istilah yang menerangkan apa yang berlaku apabila bekalan darah jantung anda tersumbat atau diganggu oleh pengumpulan bahan-bahan lemak dalam arteri koronari. Arteri koronari membekalkan darah ke otot jantung dan tiada bekalan darah alternatif wujud, jadi tersumbatnya bahagian dalam arteri koronari akan mengurangkan bekalan darah ke otot jantung.
Lama kelamaan, dinding arteri anda boleh menjadi tebal dengan lemak. Proses ini dikenali sebagai aterosklerosis dan lemak dipanggil ateroma. 
Aterosklerosis boleh disebabkan oleh gaya hidup dan keadaan lain, seperti: 
  • Merokok 
  • Kolesterol tinggi 
  • Tekanan darah tinggi (hipertensi) 
  • Diabetes



 

                                          

Penyakit jantung iskemia (ischemic heart disease) yang disebabkan oleh aterosklerosis, biasanya hadir walaupun apabila lumen arteri kelihatan normal oleh angiografi. 
Pada mulanya terdapat penyempitan teruk tiba-tiba atau penutupan sama ada arteri koronari yang besar dan / atau cawangan akhir arteri koronari. Ia biasanya merasakan angina, terutamanya jika kawasan besar terjejas.Serangan jantung menyebabkan kerosakan kepada otot jantung.




Kawasan putih di tengah2 dinding jantung menunjukkan tanda tisu rosak.
Tompok gelap menunjukan tisu jantung yg rosak



Saturday, 3 May 2014

Glycemic Index..

Glycemic Index (GI) ini bermaksud sejauh mana suatu makanan atau minuman or even apa jua intake kita memberi kesan terhadap paras gula dlm darah.

Secara ringkas, makanan seperti sediaan ''glucose'' mempunyai GI 100, manakala soya secara average hanya 15.

Nilai ini membawa maksud semakin tinggi GI semakin cepat tenaga yg dibekalkan kepada badan. Dengan kata lain sediaan 'glucose' meningkatkan gula dlm darah secara serta merta berbanding soya.

Hal ini boleh dimanipulasikn dlm kegiatan harian. Sebagai contoh, glucose digunakan oleh ahli sukan sbgai pembekal tenaga yg pantas, kerana mereka melakukan aktiviti fizikal yg berat.


Dengan GI ini juga, mudah lah untuk pengidap kencing manis untuk menjangka sejauh mana kesan suatu mknn terhadap paras gula dlm bdn. Sebab itu jika terdapat tanda2 hypoglycemia, anda perlu memakan gula2 (sekurang2 nya) kerana ia memberi tenaga dgn agak pantas.

Kesesuaian aktiviti juga dpt diubahsuai jika sekiranya anda penggemar maknn2 atau minuman yg GI nya tinggi. Hal ini bolah dibuat dgn menanbah aktiviti riadah bagi meningkatkn penggunaan tenaga dan respon sel trhadap insulin. InsyaAllah...



Thursday, 1 May 2014

Superbug : Antibiotic resistant. Lebih bahaya daripada AIDS!!!



Superbugs muncul apabila bakteria yang hidup bermutasi atau berubah setelah dirawat antibiotik secara tidak wajar. Superbugs ini dapat mengubah struktur kimia mereka dengan cara yang memberikan mereka keupayaan untuk meneutralkan antibiotik menyebabkan antibiotik tidak lagi berkesan.


Tiada penawar untuk superbugs-jalan terbaik untuk melawannya ialah melalui pencegahan. Pencegahan termasuk menukar tabiat kesihatan peribadi kita dalam cara menghalang superbugs dari baru muncul dan merebak. Cuba fikirkan: adakah anda mempunyai tabiat yang menyumbang kepada superbug kemunculan dan merebak?


WHO memberi amaran bahawa orang ramai perlu 'menjangka banyak lagi kematian' kerana ia boleh menjadi risiko lebih tinggi untuk kanak-kanak mendapat jangkitan maut dari luka kecil, manakala operasi hospital menjadi maut disebabkan pesakit berisiko mendapat jangkitan yang sebelum ini boleh dirawat.
Para doktor mendapati bahawa antibiotik tidak lagi berfungsi terhadap jangkitan saluran kencing dan kulit, batuk kering, serta gonorea.

WHO menggesa orang ramai supaya mengambil langkah berjaga-jaga yang mudah, seperti membasuh tangan untuk mengelakkan bakteria daripada merebak.



"Kami melihat kadar dahsyat rintangan antibiotik di mana sahaja dalam operasi di lapangan, termasuk kanak-kanak dimasukkan ke pusat-pusat pemakanan di Niger, dan orang-orang di unit pembedahan dan trauma kami di Jordan," kata Dr Jennifer Cohn, pengarah perubatan Kempen MSF Access. 
Negara-negara perlu meningkatkan pengawasan mereka ketahanan antimikrobial, jika tidak tindakan kita adalah hanya sia-sia; tanpa maklumat ini, doktor tidak tahu sejauh mana masalah dan tidak boleh mengambil keputusan klinikal yang betul diperlukan. 
"Akhirnya, laporan WHO harus menjadi titik penggerak kepada kerajaan untuk memperkenalkan insentif bagi industri untuk membangunkan antibiotik baru dan berpatutan yang tidak bergantung kepada paten dan harga yang tinggi, dan disesuaikan dengan keperluan negara-negara membangun."


Doktor juga diberitahu untuk memberi kepada pesakit, antibiotik dengan berhati-hati dan memastikan pesakit menghabiskan semua antibiotik tidak kira simptoms sudah hilang atau masih ada, seolah-olah mereka berhenti pertengahan jalan. Jika ini berlaku bakteria boleh menjadi kebal terhadap antibiotik itu. Di England tahun lepas beberapa 41.7million preskripsi ditulis keluar, dari 37.2million pada tahun 2006.


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2616794/Antibiotic-resistance-needs-taken-seriously-AIDS-Implications-bacteria-evading-drugs-devastating-says-landmark-report.html#ixzz30NzRCFZH

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/apr/30/antibiotics-losing-effectiveness-country-who

http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/superbugs-more-deadly-aids-antibiotics-3480383